Fermentation of Penicillin Antibiotic

Fermentation of Penicillin Antibiotic Penicillin is an antibiotic produced by microorganisms. This antibiotics inhibit growth and development of other micro-organism. Generally the penicillin antibiotic is produced by some actinomycetes and some filamentous fungi. The antibiotics produced by these micro-organism can be used medicine field, veterinary as well as agricultural field. Penicillin antibiotic was the first … Read more

Microbiology – Cell Wall of Gram Positive Bacteria.


  • A bacterial cell shows various parts and these parts have specific structure and functions.
  • These parts are separated by a rigid cell wall some parts are on the internal side of the cell wall and some parts are on the external side of the cell wall.
  • The parts present on the internal side of the cell wall are cell membrane, cytoplasm, nuclear region, reserve food material etc.
  • The cellular parts present on external to the cell wall are flagella, capsule and pilia.

Structure and function of Cell wall

  • The cell wall is the outer covering of bacterial cell in absence of capsule.
  • This cell wall is rigid in nature which imparts a proper shape to bacteria.
  • Cell wall encloses all internal parts of the cell.
  • On the basis of typical structure, composition and Gram staining they are classified

A)   Gram-positive bacteria.

B)   Gram-negative bacteria. Types of bacterial cell

Types of bacterial cell

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