Stain and staining procedures Introduction Micro-organism can be identified by microscopic examination.These micro-organisms are very small, transparent, and invisible to our naked eyes so it is very difficult to observe these micro-organisms. These microbial cells are colourless so when these cells are suspended in the aqueous medium the refractive index of the cell and aqueous medium is… Read More


Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Disease Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a causative agent of diphtheria.It is upper respiratory tract illness and it is a contageous disease. 1. Morphology It is a Gram positive, non-motile, non spore forming bacteria. Corynebacteria is non- capsulated slender rod. It shows club shaped swelling and hence called as Corynebacteria. Its size ranges from 3-6 μm in lenght and 0.6-0.8 μm… Read More


Cell wall of Gram negative bacteria Cell wall of Gram negative bacteria is more rigid and thick then Gram postive bacteria. It is made up of two layers 1. Peptidoglycan 2. Outer cell wall layer 1. Peptidoglycan It is present in between outer wall layer and cell membrane. The structure is similar as gram positive… Read More


Introduction A bacterial cell shows various parts and these parts have specific structure and functions. These parts are separated by a rigid cell wall some parts are on the internal side of the cell wall and some parts are on the external side of the cell wall. The parts present on the internal side of… Read More


Morphology means systematic study of external characters of bacteria. Morphology of bacterial cell deals with study of Size of bacteria. Shape of bacteria. Arrangement of bacteria. 1. Size of bacteria. Size of bacterial cell is less than 3 micrometer. The bacteria are microscopic in nature and are visible only under compound microscope. These bacteria may… Read More


Infection and its Types in Microbiology Infection Infection is a condition of host in which parasite lives, multiplies in the host body. Infection normally occurs when a parasite is very active and it suppresses the host defense mechanism. Depending upon the nature of host, parasite and the persistence of the disease the infection is divided into following types. 1.… Read More


Diseases and its Types in Microbiology Diseases The disease is an abnormal condition an uneasy state of the body. The human body is constantly exposed to micro-organism sometime these micro-organisms are so active that they enter the host body, multiply and result in a disease. Diseases are mainly of four types as shown below. 1.… Read More


Basics of Medical Microbiology Medical microbiology deals with studying the relationship between host and parasite and understanding the causative agent of disease. In our daily life, human beings are constantly exposed to micro-organisms. The interaction between human and micro-organisms may be useful or harmful interaction. Parasitism can be explained a condition in which microbial population… Read More