Cell wall of Gram negative bacteria Cell wall of Gram negative bacteria is more rigid and thick then Gram postive bacteria. It is made up of two layers 1. Peptidoglycan 2. Outer cell wall layer 1. Peptidoglycan It is present in between outer wall layer and cell membrane. The structure is similar as gram positive… Read More


Introduction A bacterial cell shows various parts and these parts have specific structure and functions. These parts are separated by a rigid cell wall some parts are on the internal side of the cell wall and some parts are on the external side of the cell wall. The parts present on the internal side of… Read More


Morphology means systematic study of external characters of bacteria. Morphology of bacterial cell deals with study of Size of bacteria. Shape of bacteria. Arrangement of bacteria. 1. Size of bacteria. Size of bacterial cell is less than 3 micrometer. The bacteria are microscopic in nature and are visible only under compound microscope. These bacteria may… Read More


Infection and its Types in Microbiology Infection Infection is a condition of host in which parasite lives, multiplies in the host body. Infection normally occurs when a parasite is very active and it suppresses the host defense mechanism. Depending upon the nature of host, parasite and the persistence of the disease the infection is divided into following types. 1.… Read More


Diseases and its Types in Microbiology Diseases Disease is a abnormal condition a uneasy state of body. Human body is constantly exposed to micro-organism sometime these micro-organisms are so active that they enter the host body, multiply and result a disease. Diseases are mainly of four types as shown below. 1. Epidemic In a epidemic… Read More


Basics of Medical Microbiology Medical microbiology deals with studying the relationship between host and parasite and understanding the causative agent of disease. In our daily life, human beings are constantly exposed to micro-organisms. The interaction between human and micro-organisms may be useful or harmful interaction. Parasitism can be explained a condition in which microbial population… Read More


Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Disease Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococci) Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a venereal disease 1. Morphological characters They are gram negative,non-sporeforming diplococci with concave adjacent side. It appear like a shape of a kidney. It contains pili that provide adhesion to mucosal surface and inhibit phagocytosis. 2. Cultural characters These gonococci cells grow aerobically as well as anaerobically. These organism can… Read More


 Neisseria meningitidis. Introduction It is a gram negative, non-motile cocci arranged in pairs called as diplococci. Neisseria are aerobic, non-sporulating, oxidase positive cocci. Neisseria meningitidis causes cerebrospinal fever that is Meningococcal meningitis. 1. Morphological characters They are gram negative,spherical shape cocci with flattened adjacent side. Its size ranges from 0.6-0.8 micrometer. Its size,shape and staining… Read More