Microbial Culture Media The micro-organism requires a base medium for their growth and it is called culture media. Nutrient media contains the substances that are used by organism synthesis of food, growth and survival. It fulfils all the nutritional requirements of the micro-organism. The nutrient media consist of water as the important ingredient plus organic… Read More


Staining of Fungus by using Lactophenol cotton blue Aim To stain fungal cells by using Lactophenol cotton blue. Approach Fungi are eukaryotic organism and they are classified into two main groups that is yeast and molds.Its cell wall is made up of chitin.Fungal cells have both macroscopic as well as microscopic structure. This microorganism is… Read More


Rickettsia Staining by using Gimenez Method Aim To stain Rickettsia by using Gimenez staining method. Approach Rickettsia is a non-motile, Gram-negative,non-spore forming, pleomorphic bacteria. It is pleomorphic because it shows different shapes of bacteria that is cocci, rod and spiral shape. Rickettsia name was given by scientist Howard Ricketts. It is an obligate intracellular parasite… Read More


Nuclear Staining by Giemsa’s Method and its Details Aim To stain bacteria nuclear material by Giemsa’s staining technique. Approach DNA is a principle genetic material of all micro-organisms except some viruses. Bacterial cell lacks a well-organised nucleus. It is the very essential structure of a living cell. Nucleus performs important functions like growth, metabolic activities,… Read More


Flagella Staining by Loeffler’s Method and its Details Flagella is the most important locomotory organ of a bacterial cell and for studying this structure it is important to stain the flagella.So here we have another staining technique used for staining of flagella that is Loffler’s staining technique. There are some other staining techniques that are… Read More


Spirochete Staining by Becker’s Method Spirochete are spiral shape bacteria .Becker’s staining is another special staining used to stain spirochete. Other Spirochete staining techniques are Rue’s method and Levaditi’s method. Aim To stain spirochete by using Becker’s method. Requirement Tartar sample. Fontana’s fixative. Fontana’s mordant. Becker’s stain. Procedure First of all a sterile pin is… Read More


Spirochete Staining by Fontana’s Technique Introduction Spirochete are spiral shaped Gram negative bacteria. They are unique in morphology and locomotion. The spirochete is spiral in shape so its size is measured by measuring its length and width. Generally, it is 5 to 500 µm in length and 0.1 to 3 µm in width. Spirochete has endo-flagella that… Read More


Rules and Safety Measures in Microbiological Laboratory It is very important to follows rules of microbiological laboratory in safety point of view. If these important rules are not followed a student,teacher, or a laboratory worker can face Biohazards, Chemical hazards as well as Physical hazards. The safety rules are as follows Whenever a person enters… Read More


Nomenclature of Bacterial Cell In this world, there are millions of microorganisms.These microorganism are present everywhere and each organism has its unique and special features.There is a huge diversity in morphological, physical, and chemical characters of these organism.So due to such a huge diversity it is very important to name and classify these organism.Nomenclature and… Read More


Flagella Staining Technique by Liefson’s Method Introduction Bacteria have two types of locomotory organs and that are Flagella and pili. Here we are studying about flagella staining. Flagella is a thin,hair like structure made up protein called as flagellin. It size ranges from 20 µ to 200 µ in length. Flagella is one of the most important… Read More