Branches of Microbiology

Branches of Microbiology Micro-organism are present everywhere in nature  and this micro-organism has a great effect on other life form like human being,plants and animals in several ways.The effect of micro-organism to the environment may be desirable or undesirable.These bacteria show wide range of activity and diversity.On basis on taxonomic characters and application of micro-organism … Read moreBranches of Microbiology

Strain Improvement of Micro-organisms Used in fermentation.

Strain Improvement of Micro-organisms Used in fermentation. In industries the micro-organism are selected by using various screening procedure.The strain which is selected on industrial scale for commercial production of a product should be able to produce high yield of product constantly.This constant high yield of product makes the fermentation economic as well as face the … Read moreStrain Improvement of Micro-organisms Used in fermentation.

Screening Techniques and its Details

Screening Technique and its Details The screening techniques are generally carried out in two stages. Primary Screening Secondary Screening 1. Primary Screening Detection and isolation of industrially important micro-organism from the mixed population using simple techniques is called as primary screening techniques.In primary screening technique, simple methods are used to detect valuable micro-organism based on certain … Read moreScreening Techniques and its Details

Screening of Micro-organism for Industrial Use

Screening of Micro-organism for Industrial Use The micro-organism that is required in industries are screened or we can say isolated from nature.The source from which micro-organism are isolated may be soil, air, water, compost, milk or food.Isolation of this micro-organism requires specific isolation technique.So a search of micro-organism of our interest in nature can be … Read moreScreening of Micro-organism for Industrial Use

Sterilization of Fermentation Media

Sterilization of Fermentation Media Sterilization of fermentation media play a important role in fermentation .If the fermentation media is not sterilized properly or we can say if the media gets contaminated it can lead to economic loss.The contamination of media can effect the yield of product,it can change the product or it can effect the … Read moreSterilization of Fermentation Media

Fermentation Media

Design of Fermentation Media

In a fermentation process, the choice of the most optimum micro-organisms and fermentation media is very important for high yield of product. The quality of fermentation media is important as it provides nutrients and energy for growth of micro-organisms. This medium provides substrate for product synthesis in a fermentor.

Fermentation media consists of major and minor components.

  • Major components include Carbon and Nitrogen source.
  • Minor components include inorganic salts, vitamins, growth factors, anti-foaming agents, buffers, dissolved oxygen, other dissolved gases, growth inhibitors and enzymes.

Nutrients required for fermentation media also depend upon the type of fermentation organisms as well as the type of fermentation process to be used. Poor choice of fermentation media might result in poor yield of output. Types of nutrients present in the fermentation media always determine the yield of the product.

There are two uses of fermentation media

  1. Growth media
  2. Fermentation media

Growth medium contains low amounts of nutrients.It is useful in creating raw material for further fermentation processes.

Fermentation media contains high amounts of nutrients. It is used in creating final products using fermentation.

For example, growth of yeast requires 1% carbon. But during fermentation of alcohol, yeast requires 12 to 13 % carbon in the medium.

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Types of Fermentation Processes | Industrial Microbiology

There are three types of fermentation processes and they are

  1. Batch fermentation
  2. Continuous fermentation
  3. Dual or multiple fermentation

  1. Batch fermentation

Batch fermentation is carried out in batches. Here, fermentation media is filled up to 80% space by fermentor, and the remaining space is used as head space. Head space plays an important role as some area of a fermentor is required for collection of air, gases, and foam which is produced during the fermentation process. Further, after inoculation of media the fermentor is steam sterilized and after sterilization, the nutrient media is cooled and inoculated with desired volume of inoculums under aseptic condition.

Fermentation process is carried out under optimum growth condition. It is stopped after specific period of time and the fermented media or broth are removed from the fermentor and the desired product is obtained.

The product obtained is passed through recovery and purification process. Later, the fermentor is cleaned and reused for the next batch. In this process, as the fermentation proceeds, the quantity of nutrients from the media gets depleted, and microbes and products increase. In batch fermentation, growth of micro-organism is slower down due to decrease of nutrients.

Advantages of batch fermentation

It requires less space, there are fewer chances of contamination and this process is easy to handle. The disadvantage is that it is a time consuming process and it requires more time for cleaning, sterilization, cooling. The yield of the product is also low.

  1. Continuous fermentation process.

In continous fermentation process fermentation runs continuously without emptying of fermentation tank. It involves continous addition of fresh media and withdrawal of fermentation product is constant.Each and every cell in fermentation media should be in log phase and not in stationary phase.The rate of addition of media should satisfy nutrient requirement of fermentation organism if rate of addition of media is slow there are chances that cells enter in stationary phase.There are three types of continuous fermentation processes.

i] Single stage continuous fermentation

ii] Single stage recycle continuous fermentation

iii] Multi-stage continuous fermentation

Read moreTypes of Fermentation Processes | Industrial Microbiology

Design of a Fermentor | Industrial Microbiology

Design of a Fermentor

Fermentation

Fermentation can be defined as a metabolic process in which cheap raw materials such as sugar or carbohydrates are converted into economically important products like acids, gases and alcohols by micro-organism. This process is carried out in a equipment called as fermentor.

What is a Fermentor?

A Fermentor can be defined as a vessel in which sterile nutrient media and pure culture of micro-organism are mixed and fermentation process is carried out under aseptic and optimum condition.

Fermentor provides a sterile environment and optimum condition that are important for growth of micro-organisms and synthesis of desired product.

Design of Fermentor

For details on design of fermenter refer the video

Read moreDesign of a Fermentor | Industrial Microbiology

Fermentation Equipment and its Application

Fermentation Equipment and its Application Fermentation can be defined as a metabolic process in which raw materials such as sugar or carbohydrates are converted into acids, gases and alcohols. Micro-organisms such as yeast and bacteria play a central role in the fermentation process. Fermentation process requires a fermentor, substrate, inoculum and optimum conditions. The equipment … Read moreFermentation Equipment and its Application

Introduction to Industrial Microbiology

Fermenting tanks with yeast being used to brew beer. Photo by Kafziel

 In Industrial microbiology is a branch of science that deals with the study and uses of micro-organism which has industrial and economic applications. Industrial Microbiology, microbes classified, characterized are isolated from their natural environment. Further, these micro-organisms are produced on a large-scale by use of a fermentor.

Fermenting tanks with yeast being used to brew beer. Photo by Kafziel
Modern Fermenting Tanks
Photo by Kafziel

The most important applications of industrial microbiology are using microbes to convert inexpensive raw materials into economically important products. Further, these products go through detection, analysis, assay, purification and recovery to make them safe and effective. The end products are valuable, but the microbes creating these products are equally important.

During the process of industrial fermentation, microbial cells produce extra-cellular as well as intracellular enzymes. These enzymes play an important role in fermentation, degradation and utilization of media components. Enzymes can be used as a product by itself and have many end-use applications. For example, enzymes like amylase and proteases are used in a variety of products.

Read moreIntroduction to Industrial Microbiology

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