Champagne Manufacture and its Details
Champagne is an example of Sparkling wine. The alcohol content of champagne is 10 % to 14 %. The manufacture of champagne is carried out in two ways
- Bottle Fermentation
- Bulk Fermentation
Let’s see bottle manufacture of Champagne in details
- In fermentation of champagne the whole fermentation process is carried out in bottles itself so it is called as bottle fermentation.
- In the process of manufacture of champagne the fermentation process is carried out twice. First fermentation is carried out to produce white table wine and second fermentation is carried out to produce champagne.
2] Raw Material
Raw material used for champagne fermentation is
- White table wine – 1 litre
- Inverted sugar – 26 gms
- Champagne yeast starter – 3 %
3] Process of fermentation
Racking of fermentation bottles
- In bottle fermentation of Champagne 1 liter of white table wine, 26 gms of inverted sugar and 3 % of yeast starter culture is taken and added in a bottle slowly by proper agitation and simultaneously the whole bottle is filled.
- The bottles are completely filled and the bottles are sealed with fixed steel clamps.
- These bottles are kept on stack in horizontal position
- The fermentation is carried out in this bottles and this bottles are held at 56 ° F for 6 months.
- The temperature of 56 ° F gives the best quality of wine because at this temperature there is development of best flavour of wine as well as at this temperature the bottle do not break. The precipitation of tartar takes places at this temperature.
- Here we use white table wine which is already sterile and we have taken sterile bottles for fermentation plus we added pure innoculum culture. At the temperature of 56 ° F there are were few chances of growth of other bacteria and contamination of wine.
- The fermentation is carried out for 6 months. Further after 6 months these bottles are taken out and shaken properly and again incubated for 6 months to 4 years for aging.
- After aging the precipitates settle down now we have a challenge to remove the precipitate without removing the carbon dioxide gas from bottle.
- For removing of precipitate from champagne bottle we have to cool the wine bottles at 25 ° F for one to two weeks.So that at low temperature of 25 ° F the carbon dioxide present in bottle remains in dissolved state in wine.
- After one to two weeks the wine bottles are kept on disgorging rack and the bottles are lifted carefully from the broad side of bottle so that the precipitate comes at the neck of the bottle. Further the neck of bottle is inserted in the chiller of temperature 5° F and the precipitate present at the neck of the bottle is converted into a ice block and the wine is present in liquid state.
- The bottles are taken the cork is opened and closed immediately.
- Now our champagne is ready,the bottles are sold and when the temperature of bottles comes to normal and the bottles are opened the dissolved gas get released.
Uncorking of Champagne bottle and release of Carbon dioxide.
Flow Chart indicating Champagne fermentation Process