Nuclear Staining by Giemsa’s Method and its Details Aim To stain bacteria nuclear material by Giemsa’s staining technique. Approach DNA is a principle genetic material of all micro-organisms except some viruses. Bacterial cell lacks a well-organised nucleus. It is the very essential structure of a living cell. Nucleus performs important functions like growth, metabolic activities,… Read More


Flagella Staining by Loeffler’s Method and its Details Flagella is the most important locomotory organ of a bacterial cell and for studying this structure it is important to stain the flagella.So here we have another staining technique used for staining of flagella that is Loffler’s staining technique. There are some other staining techniques that are… Read More


Spirochete Staining by Becker’s Method Spirochete are spiral shape bacteria .Becker’s staining is another special staining used to stain spirochete. Other Spirochete staining techniques are Rue’s method and Levaditi’s method. Aim To stain spirochete by using Becker’s method. Requirement Tartar sample. Fontana’s fixative. Fontana’s mordant. Becker’s stain. Procedure First of all a sterile pin is… Read More


Spirochete Staining by Fontana’s Technique Introduction Spirochete are spiral shaped Gram negative bacteria. They are unique in morphology and locomotion. The spirochete is spiral in shape so its size is measured by measuring its length and width. Generally, it is 5 to 500 µm in length and 0.1 to 3 µm in width. Spirochete has endo-flagella that… Read More


Rules and Safety Measures in Microbiological Laboratory It is very important to follows rules of microbiological laboratory in safety point of view. If these important rules are not followed a student,teacher, or a laboratory worker can face Biohazards, Chemical hazards as well as Physical hazards. The safety rules are as follows Whenever a person enters… Read More


Flagella Staining Technique by Liefson’s Method Introduction Bacteria have two types of locomotory organs and that are Flagella and pili. Here we are studying about flagella staining. Flagella is a thin,hair like structure made up protein called as flagellin. It size ranges from 20 µ to 200 µ in length. Flagella is one of the most important… Read More


Endospore staining by Bartholomew and Mittwer’s Method Aim To stain Endospore of a bacterial cell by Bartholomew and Mittwer’s Method. Requirement Cell suspension of endospore producing bacteria. Malachite green stain. Saffranin stain. Procedure Take a clean grease free slide and prepare a thick smear on a slide. The smear is heat fixed by passing the slide… Read More


Endospore Staining by Dorner’s Method Introduction Endospore is a resistant refractile structure formed inside the cell. Endospore is generally formed by some gram positive bacteria. When a bacteria come across some unfavorable conditions it gives rise to resistant structure called as endospore. These endospore is metabolically inactive,it has low moisture content and it is made… Read More


Volutin Granule Staining Technique and its Details Introduction Micro-organism have a special characteristic these organism store reserve food material in the form of granules.These granules are utilized by these organism when they are in starvation mode. These reserve food granules are also called Volutin granules, Metachromatic granules or Babes Ernst granules. These granules are mainly… Read More


Capsule Staining Technique by Maneval’s Method. Maneval’s staining method is a negative staining method. Aim To stain a  capsule of a cell by Maneval’s staining method. Requirement 1 % Congo red solution. Maneval’s stain. Capsulated cell culture. Please watch the Video given Below Procedure Take a loopful of capsulated cell suspension on a clean grease free… Read More