Cyanophage and its Details Cyanobacteria ž Cyanobacteria are microscopic, photosynthetic, aquatic bacteria. ž It is generally found in fresh water, Lake, Ocean, Streams, Moist soil and rock. ž Cyanobacteria is also called as blue-green algae and also called as cyanophyte. ž They are aquatic, photosynthetic, prokaryotic bacteria so its name was renamed as Cyanobacteria. ž… Read More


Morphology and Structure of Viruses Definition of Viruses Virus is a smallest infectious particle, Unicellular, Obligate Intracellular parasite. Lets see Morphology and structure of viruses in detail. Characters of Viruses Size of Viruses Shape of Viruses Structure of viruses – It consist of Capsid , nucleic acid and envelop. 1. Size of Viruses Viruses are smaller… Read More


General Characters of Viruses Viruses Virology is a branch of science that deals with the study of viruses. Viruses are Obligate intracellular parasites they require a living cell or organism for its multiplication. It can infect all living forms including plants, animals, bacteria etc. Viruses can be observed only under the electron microscope. They are… Read More


Structure of Bacterial Cell Bacterial cell The bacterial cell is made up of various internal as well as external anatomical structure. Introduction A bacterial cell shows various parts and these parts have specific structure and functions. Some structures are present in that particular species and hence that structure is characteristic feature of that species. Various… Read More


Major Microbiological Institutes of India Part – 1 Microbiology is a wide branch of science which can give you a great opportunity to work in different fields. Here I am sharing a list of different Institutes. This list can be helpful for those who are in search of various job opportunities and further studies after… Read More


Major Microbiological Institutes of India Part – 2 Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Complex, Post Box No. 6 Palampur (H.P) 176061 Common wealth Institute of Biological Center (Indian Station) Post Box no 2484, H. A. Farm, Bangalore – 560024 Defense Agricultural Laboratory Post Box No. 40, Haldawani – 263139 Defense Food Research Laboratory Jyothi… Read More


Fermentation of Ethyl Alcohol 1]  Introduction Ethyl Alcohol is also called as ethanol. Ethanol is produced by biological process in which sugars  such as glucose, fructose, sucrose are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The fermentation carried out is anaerobic condition. Ethanol is volatile and flammable liquid. Alcohol fermentation was the first fermentation that was… Read More


Fermentation of Penicillin Antibiotic Penicillin is an antibiotic produced by microorganisms. This antibiotics inhibit growth and development of other micro-organism. Generally the penicillin antibiotic is produced by some actinomycetes and some filamentous fungi. The antibiotics produced by these micro-organism can be used medicine field, veterinary as well as agricultural field. Penicillin antibiotic was the first… Read More


Idli Fermentation Process and its Details Idli is one of the famous food of India specially in South India. Idli is a cereal, legume based food.Idli is a small, white, acid leaved steam cake made by fermentation of thick batter of carefully washed and soaked rice and black gram dal. It is soft and spongy… Read More


Beer Fermentation and its Details Introduction Fermentation of beer is a very complex process. The products formed after fermentation are fermented product, alcohol, glycerol and acid. There are some different types of beer like Ale beer, Porter beer, Bock beer, Lager beer, Pilsner beer. Composition of typical American beer  Bland flavour pH – 4.3 Alcohol… Read More