Design of Fermentation Media
In a fermentation process, the choice of the most optimum micro-organisms and fermentation media is very important for high yield of product. The quality of fermentation media is important as it provides nutrients and energy for growth of micro-organisms. This medium provides substrate for product synthesis in a fermentor.
Fermentation media consists of major and minor components.
- Major components include Carbon and Nitrogen source.
- Minor components include inorganic salts, vitamins, growth factors, anti-foaming agents, buffers, dissolved oxygen, other dissolved gases, growth inhibitors and enzymes.
Nutrients required for fermentation media also depend upon the type of fermentation organisms as well as the type of fermentation process to be used. Poor choice of fermentation media might result in poor yield of output. Types of nutrients present in the fermentation media always determine the yield of the product.
There are two uses of fermentation media
- Growth media
- Fermentation media
Growth medium contains low amounts of nutrients.It is useful in creating raw material for further fermentation processes.
Fermentation media contains high amounts of nutrients. It is used in creating final products using fermentation.
For example, growth of yeast requires 1% carbon. But during fermentation of alcohol, yeast requires 12 to 13 % carbon in the medium.