Microbiology – Characteristics of Eukaryotic cell

There are two types of cells on the basis of nucleus present within the cell.

  •  Prokaryotic cell. 
  •  Eukaryotic cell.

Eukaryotic cell 

Eukaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell

  • The size range of Eukaryotic cell is from 2 to 100 micrometer in diameter.
  • The genetic material is located in nucleus, chloroplast, and mitochondria.
  • It contains nuclear membrane,nucleolus, and histone proteins.
  • It has more than one number of chromosome.
  • Chromosome are linear in shape.
  • Mitosis and meiosis mechanism is observed in eukaryotic cell.
  • Genes of these type of cells are separate and not in cluster form.
  • Plasma membrane shows presence of sterols.
  • Ribosome is of 70S and 80S structure type.
  • The 70S type ribosome is located in mitochondria and 80S type ribosome is located in rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Gas vacuole and mesosomes are absent in eukaryotic cells.
  • Respiratory system is present in mitochondria.
  • These cells may show presence of lysosomes.
  • Anaerobic energy yielding mechanism is shown through glycolysis leading to lactic acid production.
  • Eukaryotic cells lack the ability of fixing atmospheric nitrogen.
  • Magnetogenesis is absent in eukaryotic cells.
  • It shows about 40 % of G+C content.
  • Protein synthesis is carried out on rough endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Cell wall is present in plants algae and fungi but absent in protozoa and animals.
  • The cell wall is composed of polysaccharide and shows absence of peptidoglycan.
  • It shows absence of flagella pilia and capsule.
  • Examples:- Plants, animals, algae. fungi and human beings.

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