Microbiology – Characteristics of Eukaryotic cell
There are two types of cells on the basis of nucleus present within the cell.
- Prokaryotic cell.
- Eukaryotic cell.
- The size range of Eukaryotic cell is from 2 to 100 micrometre in diameter.
- The genetic material is located in nucleus, chloroplast, and mitochondria.
- It contains nuclear membrane, nucleolus, and histone proteins.
- It has more than one number of chromosome.
- The chromosome is linear in shape.
- Mitosis and meiosis mechanism is observed in the eukaryotic cell.
- Genes of these type of cells are separate and not in cluster form.
- Plasma membrane shows the presence of sterols.
- The ribosome is of the 70S and 80S structure type.
- The 70S type ribosome is located in mitochondria and 80S type ribosome is located in rough endoplasmic reticulum.
- Gas vacuole and mesosomes are absent in eukaryotic cells.
- The respiratory system is present in mitochondria.
- These cells may show the presence of lysosomes.
- The anaerobic energy-yielding mechanism is shown through glycolysis leading to lactic acid production.
- Eukaryotic cells lack the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen.
- Magnetogenesis is absent in eukaryotic cells.
- It shows about 40 % of the G+C content.
- Protein synthesis is carried out on rough endoplasmic reticulum.
- The cell wall is present in plants algae and fungi but absent in protozoa and animals.
- The cell wall is composed of polysaccharide and shows the absence of peptidoglycan.
- It shows the absence of flagella pilia and capsule.
- Examples:- Plants, animals, algae. fungi and human beings.