Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Disease
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococci)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a venereal disease
1. Morphological characters
- They are gram negative,non-sporeforming diplococci with concave adjacent side.
- It appear like a shape of a kidney.
- It contains pili that provide adhesion to mucosal surface and inhibit phagocytosis.
2. Cultural characters
- These gonococci cells grow aerobically as well as anaerobically.
- These organism can grow on selective media like Chocolate agar, Mueller-Hinton and Thayer Martin medium.
- The optimum temperature for its growth is 36° C and it reguires a pH range of 7.2 to 7.6.
- After incubation the colonies appear small, convex and translucent.
3. Biochemical reactions
- This Neisseria strain shows catalase and oxidase test positive.
- It has the ability to ferment glucose by producing acid and no gas.
- It does not ferment maltose, sucrose, and lactose.
- This organism is a pure human parasite it cannot survive outside the human body.
- Outside the human body it get killed in two hours.
- It is very sensitive to heat, drying and antiseptics.
- The disease spreads through sexual contact.
- In men diseases starts with acute urethritis and spreads from urethra to prostate,seminal vesicle and epididymis.
- In women disease starts with urethra and cervix uteri and may extend to Bartholin’s gland, Fallopian tube and endometrium.
6. Laboratory diagnosis
- The sample such as urethral discharge, cervical swaps is collected.
- Observation of Gram negative diplococci provide presumptive evidence of Gonorrhae by smear examination and it is unreliable in women.
- The strains were first sensitive to Sulphonamide and Penicillin but further these strains developed drug resistance against these drugs.
- The drugs like Ceftriaxone, Ciprofloxacin, Olfoxacin, Doxycyclin or Erythromycin are the drugs of choice.