Basics of Medical Microbiology

Basics of Medical microbiology

Medical microbiology deals with studying relationship of host and parasite and understanding the causative agent of disease.

In our daily life human beings are constantly exposed to micro-organisms.
The interaction between human and micro-organisms may be useful or harmful interaction.
Parasitism can be explained a condition in which microbial population is benefited and host is harmed.
Some important concepts in medical microbiology

1. Infection

  • In infection a pathogen enters in a host body, lives and multiply in host.
  • Generally infection is caused due to failure of host defense mechanism.
  • Due to failure of host defense mechanism the microbial cells leads to infection.

2. Disease

  • Disease is a result of infection
  • When a disease is established the normal functioning of host body is disturbed and this disturbance results in signs and symptoms.
  • These pathogens not only multiply in host but also releases some byproducts.
  • These byproducts may be toxic or non-toxic to host.

3.   Etiological agent

  • Etiological agent may be causative agent for disease
  • It may be opportunistic pathogen

4.   Pathogen 

  • Pathogen may be defined as a organism that has a ability to cause a disease.
  • The pathogen first enter the host body, cause infection and then result into disease.

5.   Fomites

  • Fomites are not harmful objects but they play important role in transmission of pathogen

6.   Pathogenecity

  • Pathogenecity is the ability of pathogen to cause disease

7.   Virulence

  • Virulence is a degree of pathogenecity of pathogen

8.   Incubation period

  • Incubation period is a time taken by organism to cause a disease and show its symptoms
  • That is the time between infection and appearance of siogns and symptoms.

9.   Morbidity rate

  • Morbidity is a ratio of number of people that are suffering from a disease to the total population.
  • It is expressed in percentage.
  • Morbidity rate = Number of people suffering from a disease/ Total population

10.  Mortality rate

  • Mortality rate is a ratio of number of fatalities due to disease to total population
  • It is the death rate of people.
  • Mortality = Number of fatalities/Total population

11.  Opportunistic pathogen

  • Opportunistic pathogen is a organism that is a part of normal body flora.
  • It is harmless but under certain condition the organism becomes pathogenic in nature.

12.  Prophylaxis

  • Prophylaxis is a prevention of disease.

13.  Carriers

  • Carriers are the infected host that carry the pathogen withouit showing any signs and symptoms.
  • Carriers play important role in transmission of disease.

14.  Antigen

  • Antigen are the agent which induces immune system to form antibodies.
  • The antigen may be a microbial cell or its byproducts.

15.  Antibody

  • Antibody is a glycoprotien molecule produce in response to antigen.
  • It is an immunoglobulin produce due to sensitization of immune system by antigen.

16.  Vaccin

  • It is a antigenic preparation which is induced in host body for developing immune response when a pathogen or its toxin enters host body.

17.  Immunity

  • Immunity can be defined by as a resistance shown by a host body against disease.

 

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